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Jianping Xu
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LSB 437
(905) 525-9140 ext. 27996

Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics of Fungi The overall objective in our research is to understand how fungi evolve. We examine both the patterns of fungal evolution as well as the mechanisms responsible for the observed patterns of evolution. We study fungal populations from the environment, human hosts, clinics, and the laboratory to address a variety of issues such as the rates and effects of spontaneous mutations; the persistence and spread of mutations in natural environments and human populations; and the origins of novel traits, genotypes and species. Our research uses microbiological, molecular, ecological and quantitative genetic tools. Our current research includes the following topics: 1. Population genetics of fungi, including wild mushrooms and human and animal fungal pathogens 2. Fungal mitochondrial DNA variation and inheritance 3. Development of biomarkers for efficient identification of human fungal pathogens. 4. Genetic analyses of quantitative traits in human fungal pathogens.

Ecology & Evolution; Microbiology & Plant Biology

  • Singh, R. S., Xu, J., Kulathinal, R (Editors). (In progress) Evolution in the fast lane: rapid evolution of genes and genetic systems. Oxford University Press.
  • Xu, J. and Wu, Q. (In progress) Essentials of Life Science. 2nd Edition. 3. Xu, J. (Editor). 2010. Microbial Population Genetics. Horizon Bioscience. UK 2.Xu, J. and Wu, Q. 2006. Essentials of Life Science. 1st Edition. Higher Education Press (Beijing) and Thomson Scientific (Toronto).
  • 1. Xu, J. (Editor). 2005. Evolutionary Genetics of Fungi. Horizon Scientific Press. UK. Contributions to books: 22. Xu, J. 2012. Rapid evolution in experimental populations of all major life forms. In Rapidly Evolving Genes and Genetic Systems (eds.  Singh, R. S., Xu, J., Kulathinal, R). Oxford University Press. Pp.  40-52. 21.
  • Idnurm, A and J. Xu. (In press). Experimental and natural evolution in theCryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex. In Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes (eds. David Sibley, Barbara Howlett, Joseph Heitman), Wiley/Blackwell Press 20. Litvintseva, A.P., J. Xu, and T. G. Mitchell. (2011) Population Structure and Ecology of Cryptococcus. In Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis. (Editors J. Heitman, J. Kwon-Chung, J. Perfect, A. Casadevall). ASM Press. 19. Xu, J.,W. Manosuthi, U. Banerjee, L-P Zhu, J.H. Chen, S. Kohno, K. Izumikawa, Y.H. Chen, S. Sungkanuparph, T. S. Harrison, M. Fisher. (2011) Cryptococcosis in Asia.. In Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis. (Editors J. Heitman, J. Kwon-Chung, J. Perfect, A. Casadevall). ASM Press. 18. Xu, J.(2011) Microbial ecology in the age of metagenomics.  In Handbook of Molecular Microbial Ecology I: Metagenomics and Complementary Approaches(Editor Frans J. de Bruijn). Wiley/Blackwell (To be published in 2011) 17. Luo, Y.Q., K. Lin, and J. Xu. (2010) Comparative Microbial Genomics: Analytical Tools, Population Genetic Patterns and Evolutionary Implications. Chapter 2. In Microbial Population Genetics. (Editor J. Xu), Horizon Scientific Press. 16. Eardly, B.D. and J. Xu. (2010) Population Genetics of the Symbiotic Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria Rhizobia. Chapter 5. In Microbial Population Genetics. (Editor J. Xu), Horizon Scientific Press. 15. Xu, J. (2010) Population Genetics in the Age of Metagenomics: Impact on Investigations of Viral, Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryotic Microbial Communities Chapter 12. In Microbial Population Genetics. (Editor J. Xu), Horizon Scientific Press. 14. Xu, J. (2009)Metagenomics and ecosystems biology: conceptual frameworks, tools, and methods. In Metagenomics: Theory, Methods and Applications (Editor Diana Marco), Caister Academic Press. 13. Xu, J. (2009) Reproduction and sex in microorganisms. Encyclopedia of Life Supporting Systems. UN-UNESCO. 12.Xu, J. (2008) Using 1-2 individual organisms to address population genetic questions. In Genetic Inheritance Patterns. Nova Publishers. 11. Xu, J. (2007)Origin, evolution and extinction of asexual fungi: experimental tests using Cryptococcus neoformans. Pp. 461-476. In Sex in Fungi. American Society for Microbiology Press. 10. Xu, J., M. Cheng, Q. Tan, and Y. Pan. (2005) Molecular population genetics of basidiomycete fungi. In Evolutionary Genetics of Fungi (J. Xu editor). Horizon Scientific Press, England. Pp. 189-220. 9. Xu, J. (2005) Fundamentals of fungal molecular population genetic analyses. In Evolutionary Genetics of Fungi (J. Xu editor). Horizon Scientific Press, England. Pp. 87-116. 8. Yan, Z. and J. Xu (2005) Fungal mitochondrial inheritance and evolution. In Evolutionary Genetics of Fungi (J. Xu editor). Horizon Scientific Press, England. Pp. 221-252. 7. Xu, J. (2004)  Gene Genealogical analyses of human fungal pathogens. Pp.299-318. “Pathogenic Fungi: Structural Biology and Taxonomy" (editors Gioconda San-Blas, Richard Calderone), Horizon Scientific Press. 6. Tey, R., S. Han, Z. Yan, X. Li, K. Lazzazera, S. Sun, and J. Xu. (2003) Genotypic and phenotypic diversities of human pathogenic yeasts. Research Advances in Microbiology. Global Research Network. 3: 67-85. 5. Xu, J. (2003) Molecular population genetics of the commercial mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Research Advances in Microbiology. Global Research Network. 3:35-50 4. Mitchell, T. G. and J. Xu. (2003) Molecular methods to identify pathogenic fungi. Pp.677-702. Pathogenic Fungi in Humans and Animals (2nd Edition). Editor D. H. Howard.  Marcel Dekker, New York. 3. Xu, J. and Mitchell, T. G. 2003. Population genetic analyses of medically important fungi. Pp. 703-722. Pathogenic Fungi in Humans and Animals (2nd Edition). Editor D. H. Howard.  Marcel Dekker, New York. 2. Xu, J. and Mitchell, T. G.  2002. Population genetic analyses of Candida. Pp.55-64.  Chapter 4.  in "Candida and Candidiasis"(3rd edition). Editor R. Calderone, P. Magee, N. Gow, P. Fidel, D. Sanglard, S. Filler, D. Coleman and B. Merz. American Society for Microbiology Press. Washington, D. C. 1. Xu, J. and Mitchell, T. G. 2002. Strain variation and clonality in species of Candidaand Cryptococcus neoformans. Pp. 739-750. Chapter 33.  in Fungal Pathogenesis: Principles and Clinical Applications. Editor Richard Calderone and R. L. Cihlar.  Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y. Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals (*Corresponding author, underlined: students and trainees in my lab) 88. Zhang, Y., Yu, Z.-F., Xu, J., and Zhang, K.Q*. Divergence and dispersal of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from China. Environmental Microbiology Report (In press). 87. Maganti, H*., D. Bartfai, J. Xu. Ecological structuring of yeasts associated with trees around Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. FEMS Yeast Research (In press) 86. Ge S-H., J. Xie, J. Xu; J. Li; D-M Li, L-L Zong; Y-C Zheng, F-Y Bai*. Prevalence of specific and phylogenetically closely related genotypes in the population of Candida albicans associated with genital candidiasis in China. Fungal Genetics and Biology (In press) 85. Ma, H-C., J-R. Wu, X. Zeng, D. Zhang, Z. Xiong, and J. Xu*. Diversity and stress-tolerance of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from legumes in the Dry-Hot Valleys of southwest China. African Journal of Microbiology Research (In press). 84. Yang, J., L. Wang, X. Ji, Y. Feng, X. Li, C. Zou, J. Xu, Y. Ren, Q. Mi, J. Wu, S. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Huang, H. Wang, X. Niu, J. Li, L. Liang, Y. Luo, K. Ji, W. Zhou, Z. Yu, G. Li, Y. Liu, L. Li, M. Qiao, L. Feng, and K. Zhang*. 2011. Genomic and proteomic analyses of the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora provide insights into nematode-trap formation. PLoS Pathogen 7(9): e1002179. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002179 83. Chowdhary A, S.S. Hiremath, S. Sun, T. Kowshiki, H.S. Randhawa, and J. Xu*. 2011. Genetic differentiation, recombination and clonal expansion in environmental populations of Cryptococcus gattii in India. Environmental Microbiology 13(7):1875-88. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02510.x 82. Chowdhary, A.*, H. S. Randhawa, G. Sundar, S. Kathuria, A. Prakash, Z. U. Khan,S. SUN & J. Xu. 2011. In vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles and genotypes of 308 clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii serotype B from north-western India. Journal of Medical Microbiology 60:961-967. 81. Rajkumar S.S., R.J. Rudd, J.C. Okoniewski, J. Xu, S. Chaturvedi, and V. Chaturvedi*. 2011. Dispersal of a single, clonal genotype of Geomyces destructansamong New York bats with geomycosis (White Nose Syndrome). Emerging Infectious Diseases; DOI: 10.3201/eid1707.102056 80. Maganti H, D. Yamamura, and J. Xu*. 2011. Prevalent nosocomial clusters among causative agents for candidemia in Hamilton, Canada. Medical MycologyDOI:10.3109/13693786.2010.547880 79. Cao. CW, Liang L*, Wang WJ, Luo H, Huang SB, Liu DH, Xu J, Henk DA, Fisher MC. 2011. Common reservoirs for Penicillium marneffei infection in humans and rodents, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17:209-214. 78. Randhawa, H. S.*, T. Kowshik, A. Chowdhary, K. Preeti Sinha, Z. U. Khan, J. Xu. 2011. Seasonal variations in prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubiiandCryptococcus gattii in decayed wood inside trunk hollows of diverse tree species in north- western India: a retrospective study. Medical Mycology49:320-323
    • Qiao M, Zhang Y, Li SF, Baral H.-O., Weber E., Su HY, Xu J, Zhang KQ, Yu ZF. 2011. Orbilia blumenaviensis and its Arthrobotrys anamorph.Mycological Progress. On line: DOI: 10.1007/s11557-011-0744-3.
    76. Qin L, Qiao M, Yang Y, Yang GZ, Lu KP, Zhang KQ, Xu J, Yu ZF. 2010.Dactylella pseudobrevistipitata, a new species from China. Annals of Microbiology. On line: DOI: 10.1007/s13213-010-0177-2. 75. Niu, QH, Huang XW, Zhang L, Xu J, Yang DM, Wei KB, Niu XM, An ZQ, Bennett JW, Zou CG, Yang JK, and Zhang KQ*. 2010. A Trojan horse mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis against nematodes. PNAS 107: 16631–16636. Published online 2010 August 23. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1007276107 ( 74. Li MC, Liang JF, Li YC, Feng B, Yang ZL, James TY, and Xu J*. 2010. Genetic diversity of Dahongjun, the commercially important "Big Red Mushroom" from southern China" PLoS ONE 5(5): e10684. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010684 73. Nayak R* and Xu J. 2010. Effects of sertraline hydrochloride and fluconazole combinations onCryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Mycology 1: 99-105 72. Ge SH, Wan Z, Li J, Xu J, Li RY, and Bai FY*. 2010. Correlation between Azole Susceptibilities, Genotypes and ERG11 Mutations in Candida albicans Isolates Associated with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in China. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 54:3126-3131 71. Fan JY, Guo LY*, Xu J, Luo Y, Michailides TJ. 2010. Genetic Diversity of Populations of Monilinia fructicola (Fungi, Ascomycota, Helotiales) from China. J Eukaryotic Microbiology 57: 206-212. 70. Liang, J. F., Yang, Z. L.*, Xu J and Z-W Ge. 2010. Two new unusual Leucoagaricus species (Agaricaceae) from tropical China with blue-green staining reactions. Mycologia102: 1141-1152 69. Wu, J. R., H.C. Ma,M. LÜ, S.F. Han, Y.Y. Zhu, H. Jin, J.F. Liang, L. Liu, and J. Xu*. 2010.  Rhizoctonia fungi enhance the growth of the endangered orchidCymbidium goeringii. Botany 88: 20-29 68. Skosireva, I., T. Y. James, S. Sun, and J. Xu*. 2010. Mitochondrial inheritance in haploid x non-haploid crosses in Cryptococcus neoformans. Current Genetics56:163-176 67. Xu, J.*, Cadorin, M., Liang, Y-J, and Yang, Z.L.. 2010. DNA-based geographical typing of the gourmet mushroom Tricholoma matsutake traded in China. Mycoscience51:248–251. DOI 10.1007/s10267-009-0024-0) 66. Wang, Q.M.. J. Xu, H.M. Wang, J. Li, F.Y. Bai*. 2009. Torulaspora quercuum sp. nov. and Candida pseudohumilis sp. nov., novel yeasts from human and forest habitats.FEMS Yeast Research 9:1322-1326 65. Guo, H., S. Sun, B. Eardly, T. Finan, and J. Xu*, 2009. Genome variation in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Genome 52:862-875 64. Liang*, J. F., J. Xu, and Z. L. Yang. 2009. Divergence, dispersal and recombination in Lepiota cristata from China. Fungal Diversity 38:105–124 63. Xu, J*., Z. Yan, and H. Guo. 2009. Divergence, hybridization, and recombination in the mitochondrial genome of the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii. Molecular Ecology 18: 2628-2642 62. Li, M. and Xu, J*. 2009. Molecular ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi: molecular markers, genets and ecological importance. Acta Botanica Yunnanica 31: 193-209 61. Sun, S. and J. Xu*. 2009. Chromosomal rearrangements between serotype A and D strains in Cryptococcus neoformans. PLoS ONE. 4(5): e5524 60. Sha, T., J. Xu*, M. G. Palanichamy, H.-B. Zhang, T. Li, Z.-W. Zhao, Y.-P. Zhang*. 2008. Genetic diversity of an endemic gourmet mushroom Thelephora ganbajun from southwestern China. Microbiology-SGM 154, 3460-3468 59. Ciccotelli*, W., Haider S., and Xu, J. 2008. A traveler in time: phylogenetic analysis diagnoses the first case of reactivated sub-acute disseminated African histoplasmosis in an immunocompromised host from Tanzania. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology. 19: 313-315 58. Ásmundsdóttir, L. R., Erlendsdóttir, H., Haraldsson, G., Guo, H., Xu, J., Gottfredsson*. M. 2008. Molecular epidemiology of candidemia: Evidence for smoldering nosocomial clustering. Clinical Infectious Diseases 47:17-2457. Hiremath, S. S., A. Chowdhary, T. Kowshik, H. S. Randhawa, S. Sun and J. Xu* 2008 Long-distance dispersal and recombination in environmental populations ofCryptococcus neoformans var. grubii from India. Microbiology-SGM. 154: 1513-1524 56. Randhawa, H. S., T. Kowshik, A. Chowdhary, K. Preeti Sinha, Z. U. Khan, S. Sunand J. Xu, 2008 The expanding host tree species spectrum of Cryptococcus gattii andCryptococcus neoformans and their isolations from surrounding soil in India. Medical Mycology 18: 1-11 55. Shahid, M., Han, S., Yoell, H., and Xu, J*. 2008. Fitness distribution and transgressive segregation across 40 environmental conditions in a hybrid progeny population of the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans.Genome 51:272-281 54. Xu, J*., Sha, T., Li, Y.-C., Zhao, Z.-W., and Yang, Z.- L. 2008. Recombination and genetic differentiation among natural populations of the ectomycorrhizal mushroomTricholoma matsutake from southwestern China. Molecular Ecology 17: 1238-1247 53. Sun, S., and Xu, J*. 2007. Genetic analyses of a hybrid cross between serotypes A and D strains of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.Genetics177:1475-1486 52. Li, G., Zhang, K*., Xu, J., Dong, J., and Liu, Y. 2007. Nematicidal substances from fungi. Recent Patents in Biotechnology1: 212-233 51. Wang, H., Guo, H., Sun, S., and Xu, J*. 2007. Abundant sequence variation around the mitochondrial origin of replication in the human opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida albicans from a tropical island in China. Fungal Genetics and Biology 44:991-1001 50. Wang, H., Wang, Y., Chen, J., Zhan, Z., Li, Y., and Xu, J*. 2007. Oral yeast flora and their ITS sequence diversity among a large cohort of medical students in Hainan, China.Mycopathologia. 164:65-72 49. Xu, J*., Guo, H., and Yang, Z-L*. 2007. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ectomycorrhizal mushroom Tricholoma matsutake. Microbiology 153:2002-2012 (cover photo) 48. Yan, Z., Hull, C. M., Sun, S., Heitman, J., and Xu, J*. 2007. The mating type-specific homeodomain genes SXI1a and SXI2a coordinately control uniparental mitochondrial inheritance in Cryptococcus neoformans. Current Genetics 51:187-195 47. Yan, Z., Sun, S., Shahid, M., and Xu, J*. 2007. Environment factors can influence mitochondrial inheritance in the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Fungal Genetics and Biology 44:315-322 46. Xu, J. 2006. Evolution of microbial pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8:1306-1307 45. Randawa HS*, Kowshik T, Preeti Sinha K, Chowdhary A, Khan ZU, Yan Z, Xu J, Kumar A. 2006. Distribution of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans in decayed trunk wood of Syzygium cumini trees in north-western India. Medical Mycology. 44:623-630 44. Sun, S., Guo, H., and Xu, J*. 2006. Multiple gene genealogical analyses reveal both common and distinct population genetic patterns among replicons in the nitrogen-fixing bacteriumSinorhizobium meliloti. Microbiology. 152:3245-3259 43. Xu, J. 2006. Extracting haplotypes from diploid organisms. Current Issues in Molecular Biology. 8:113-122 42. Xu, J. 2006. Fundamentals of fungal molecular population genetic analyses. Current Issues in Molecular Biology. 8:75-89 41. Lan, L. and Xu, J*. 2006. Multiple gene genealogical analyses suggest divergence and recent clonal dispersal in the opportunistic human pathogen Candida guilliermondii.Microbiology. 152:1539-1549 40. Xu, J. 2006. Microbial ecology in the age of genomics and metagenomics: concepts, tools and recent advances. Molecular Ecology 15:1713-1731 39. Xu, J. 2005. Cost of interacting with sexual partners in a facultative sexual microbe. Genetics. 171:1597-1604 38. Xu, J. 2005. The inheritance of organelle genes and genomes: patterns and mechanisms.  Genome. 48:951-958 37. Kidd, S.E., Guo, H., Bartlett, K., Xu, J., Kronstad, J. W*. 2005. Comparative gene genealogies indicate that two clonal lineages of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia resemble strains from other geographical areas.  Eukaryotic Cell4: 1629-1638 36. Guo, H., Sun, S., Finan, T.M. and Xu, J*. 2005. Novel DNA sequences from natural strains of the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteriumSinorhizobium melilotiApplied and Environmental Microbiology. 71:7130-7138 35. Xu, J. 2004. Genotype-environment interactions of spontaneous mutations affecting vegetative fitness in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Genetics168:1177-1188. 34. Yan, Z, Hull, C. M., Heitman, J., Sun, S. and Xu, J*. 2004. SXI1a controls uniparental mitochondrial inheritance in Cryptococcus neoformansCurrent Biology. 14:R743-R744. 33. Xu, J. 2004. The prevalence and evolution of sex in microorganisms. Genome47:775-780 32. Xu, J*. and Mitchell, T. G. 2003. Comparative gene genealogical analyses of strains of serotype AD identify recombination in populations of serotypes A and D in the human pathogenic yeastCryptococcus neoformans.  Microbiology. 149:2147-2154. 31. Montour, L. Tey, R. and Xu, J*. 2003. Isolation of Candida dubliniensis in an aboriginal community in Ontario, Canada.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 41:3423-3426. 30. Gottfredsson, M*., Vredenburgh, J., Xu, J., Schell, W. A., Perfect, J. R. 2003. Candidemia in women with breast carcinoma treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Cancer. 98:24-30. 29. Yan, Z. and Xu, J*. 2003. Mitochondria are transmitted from MATa parent in sexual crosses of the human pathogenic fungus CryptococcusneoformansGenetics 163, 1315-1325. 28. Xu, J. and Mitchell, T. G*. 2003. Geographic differences in human oral yeast flora.Clinical Infectious Diseases 36: 221-224. 27. Li, X., Yan, Z., and Xu, J*. 2003. Quantitative variation in biofilms among strains in natural populations of Candida albicans.Microbiology 149: 353-362. 26. Khan, Z.U*., Al-Anezi, A. A., Chandy, R. and Xu, J. 2003.  Disseminated cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient caused by a canavanine-resistant strain ofCryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. Journal of Medical Microbiology 52: 271-275. 25. Xu, J*. 2002. Estimating the spontaneous mutation rate of loss of sex in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformansGenetics 162:1157-1167. 24. Xu, J*. 2002. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in the human pathogenic fungusCryptococcus neoformansCurrent Genetics 41:43-47. 23. Kam, A., and Xu, J*. 2002. Diversity of commensal yeasts from within and between healthy hosts.  Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 43:19-28. 22. Xu, J*., Desmerger, C., and Callac, P. 2002. Fine scale genetic analyses reveal unexpected spatial-temporal heterogeneity in two natural populations of the commercial mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Microbiology 148:1253-1262. 21. Yan, Z., Li X, and Xu, J*. 2002. Geographic distribution of mating type alleles ofCryptococcus neoformans in four areas of the United States.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40:965-972. 20. Xu, J*., Luo, G., Vilgalys R., Brandt, M. E., and Mitchell, T. G. 2002. Multiple origins of hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans with serotype AD.  Microbiology148:203-212. 19. Forche, A., Xu, J., Vilgalys R., and Mitchell, T. G*. 2001. Development and characterization of a genetic linkage map of Cryptococcus neoformans var.neoformansusing amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and other markers.  Fungal Genetics and Biology.  31:189-203. 18. Xu, J*., Onyewu, C., Yoell, H. J., Ali, R. Y., Vilgalys, R., and Mitchell, T. G. 2001. Dynamic and heterogeneous mutations to fluconazole resistance inCryptococcusneoformans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 45:420-427. 17. McEwen JG*, Taylor JW, Carter D, Xu J, Felipe MSS, Vilgalys R, Mitchell TG, Kasuga T, White T, Bui T, Soares CMA.  2000. Molecular typing of pathogenic fungi.Medical Mycology 38(sppl 1):189-197. 16. Xu, J. Vilgalys, R., and Mitchell, T. G*. 2000.  Multiple gene genealogies reveal recent dispersion and hybridization in the human pathogenic fungusCryptococcus neoformans. Molecular Ecology.  9:1471-1481. 15. Xu, J., Ramos, A., Vilgalys, R. and Mitchell, T. G*. 2000. Clonal and spontaneous origins of fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  38:1214-1220. 14. Xu, J., Ali, R., Gregory, D., Amick, D., Lambert, S., Yoell, H., Vilgalys, R. and Mitchell, T. G*. 2000. Uniparental mitochondrial transmission in sexual crosses inCryptococcus neoformans.Current Microbiology.  40:269-273. 13. Kerrigan, R. W*., Callac, P., Xu, J., and Noble, R. 1999.  Population and phylogenetic structure within theAgaricus subfloccosus complex. Mycological Research.  103:1515-1523. 12. Xu, J., Boyd, C. M., Livingstone, E., Meyer, W., Madden, J. F., and Mitchell, T. G*. 1999. Species and genotypic diversities and similarities of pathogenic yeasts colonizing women. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 37:3835-3843. 11. Xu, J., Vilgalys, R. and Mitchell, T. G*. 1999. Lack of genetic differentiation between two geographic samples of Candida albicans  isolated from patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Journal of Bacteriology.  181:1369-1373. 10. Xu, J., Mitchell, T. G. and Vilgalys, R*., 1999.  PCR-RFLP analyses reveal both extensive clonality and local genetic differentiation in Candida albicans. Molecular Ecology. 8:59-74. 9. Xu, J., Vilgalys, R., and Mitchell, T. G*. 1998.  Colony size can be used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of fluconazole for pathogenic yeasts.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36:2383-2385. 8. Xu, J., Kerrigan, R. W., Sonnenberg, A. S., Callac, P., Horgen, P. A. and Anderson, J. B*. 1998. Mitochondrial DNA variation in natural populations of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Molecular Ecology 7:19-33. 7. Xu, J., Kerrigan, R. W., Callac, P., Horgen, P. A., and Anderson, J. B*. 1997.  The genetic structure of natural populations of Agaricus bisporus. the commercial button mushroom. Journal of Heredity 88:482-488. 6. Xu, J., Horgen, P. A., and Anderson, J. B*. 1996b.  Variation in mating interactions inAgaricusbisporusThe Cultivated Mushroom Research Newsletter 3:23-30. 5. Xu, J., Horgen, P. A., and Anderson, J. B*. 1996a.  Somatic recombination in the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporusMycological Research 100: 188-192. 4. Xu, J. 1995.  Analysis of inbreeding depression in Agaricus bisporusGenetics141:137-145. 3. Xu, J*., Yoell, H. J., and Anderson, J. B. 1994.  An efficient protocol for isolating DNA from higher fungi.  Trends in Genetics10:26-27. 2. Xu, J., Kerrigan, R. W., Horgen, P. A., and Anderson, J. B*. 1993b.  Localization of the mating type gene in Agaricus bisporusApplied and Environmental Microbiology.  59: 3044-3049. 1. Xu, J., Horgen, P. A., and Anderson, J. B*. 1993a.  Media and temperature effects on mating interactions of Agaricus bisporus   The Cultivated Mushroom Research Newsletter. 1: 25-32. (ii) Other publications 3. Xu, J. 2010. DNA barcoding, fungal diversity, and authentication of wild gourmet mushrooms. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis. 32 (5): 1010-1017. 2. Xu, J. 2010. Molecular, developmental, and evolutionary genetic studies highlight rapid evolution of genes and genetic systems.  Genome 53 (10): 848-852           (d) Journal abstracts           (e) Other 1. Xu, J., and Yang Z-L. (In press). Obituary – Prof. Mu ZANG, 1930-2011. Mycology.
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